Table 1

Characteristics of Adults With Musculoskeletal Conditions According to Opioid Use Status

CharacteristicOpioid Nonuser/ Limited Usera (n=16,046)Opioid Usera (n=2,564)P Value
Age, mean (SE), y53.4 (0.1)54.7 (0.1)<.001
Sex, %.001
Race and ethnicity, %<.001
 Non-Hispanic white67.065.6
 Non-Hispanic black20.224.7
 Other or multiple races9.46.6
Marital status, %<.001
 Divorced, separated, widowed26.138.3
 Never married18.415.4
US Census region, %<.001
Educational attainment, %<.001
 High school graduate or less63.678.3
 College degree16.78.6
 Graduate degree10.13.8
 Other degrees9.69.2
Health insurance, %<.001
Health status
Body mass index, mean (SE), kg/m229.1 (0.1)31.3 (0.2)<.001
SF-12 scores, mean (SE)
 PCS score46.0 (0.1)33.3 (0.2)<.001
 MCS score49.9 (0.1)44.4 (0.2)<.001
“Fair” or “poor” overall health, %19.750.5<.001
Higher self-reported-pain levelb30.575.5<.001
Health care use
Prior opioid use,c %10.367.2<.001
Has usual source of care,d %99.799.3.02
Prior inpatient surgery, %7.822.2<.001
Prior outpatient surgery, %10.021.3<.001
Annual health care spending, median (IQR), $2,380 (5,273)7,414 (14,240)<.001
  • ED=emergency department; IQR=interquartile range; MCS=mental component summary; PCS = physical component summary; SE = standard error; SF-12 = 12-item Short Form Health Survey.

  • Note: The χ2 test was used to compare proportions, 2-sample t test to compare means, and Mann-Whitney test to compare medians.

  • a Opioid use defined longitudinally using prescriptions received in survey rounds 3 through 5: users (≥1 prescriptions in at least 2 rounds) or nonusers/limited users (0–1 prescriptions).

  • b Percent answering “Moderately,” “Quite a bit,” or “Extremely.”

  • c Prior opioid use defined as receiving 1 or more prescriptions in rounds 1 or 2.

  • d A usual source of care other than the emergency department.