Table 1

General Characteristics of the Included Studies

Study, YearCountryDesignPatients Screened, No.Patients Undergoing Biopsy, No.Age Range, yIndication(s) for Biopsy
Al-Azab et al,16 2007CanadaRetrospective chart review1,7961,79640–93Elevated age-specific PSA level or abnormal DRE findings
Brett,17 1998AustraliaProspective cohort study2111150–79Abnormal DRE findings or PSA level ≥4.1 ng/mL
Crawford et al,18 1999United StatesRetrospective chart review142,1114,16040–79Abnormal DRE findings or PSA level ≥4 ng/mL
Elliott et al,19 2008United StatesRetrospective review of prospectively collected data1,5641,564N/AAbnormal DRE findings and/or PSA level ≥4 ng/mL
Faria et al,20 2012BrazilProspective cohort study17,5711,64745–98Abnormal DRE findings and/or PSA level ≥4 ng/mL; and starting Nov 2004, PSA 2.5–3.9 ng/mL and % free PSA level ≤15
Kirby et al,21 1994United KingdomProspective cohort study5682955–70Abnormal DRE findings or PSA level >4 ng/mL
Pederson et al,22 1990SwedenProspective cohort study1,1633450–69Abnormal DRE findings
  • DRE=digital rectal examination; N/A=not available; PSA=prostate-specific antigen.