Table 3a

Association of Practice Ownership With Work Environment, Learning Culture, Psychological Safety, and Burnout, Clinician Respondents

CharacteristicCulture of Learninga
β (95% CI)
Enjoyment With Worka
β (95% CI)
Place of Joy and Hopea
β (95% CI)
Psychological Safetya
β (95% CI)
β (95% CI)
Practice ownership
 Hospital−0.131 (−0.409 to 0.146)0.094 (−0.243 to 0.430)−0.063 (−0.403 to 0.276)0.100 (−0.242 to 0.443)−0.192 (−0.545 to 0.161)
FQHC−0.470 (−0.919 to −0.021)b−0.552 (−0.996 to −0.109)b−0.567 (−1.089 to −0.045)b−0.723 (−1.194 to −0.252)c0.219 (−0.317 to 0.755)
Incremental difference between FQHC and independent practices by response category
Response categoryaDifferenceDifferenceDifferenceDifferenceDifference
Level 10.1080.0330.0450.088−0.055
Level 20.0710.0880.0810.122−0.021
Level 3−0.0090.0830.0890.0600.033
Level 4−0.109−0.117−0.129−0.1530.019
Level 5−0.061−0.088−0.086−0.1160.024
No. of respondents467466466467466
  • FQHC = federally qualified health center.

  • Note: Multivariate ordered probit models adjusted for practice-level nonresponse and clustering at the practice level and controlling for ownership (independent, hospital system, or federally qualified health center), whether practice is located in a medical underserved area, practice size, single or multispecialty practice, percentage of patients with Medicare coverage, and percentage of patients with Medicaid coverage or uninsured.

  • a Scored on a scale from 1 to 5, in which higher scores indicate higher levels; see text for response categories.

  • b P < .05.

  • c P < .01.