Table 4

Relative Association Between the Presence of Individual Conditions on Time to Developing Incident Multimorbidity Between 2002-2003 and 2012-2013: Complementary Log-Log Model

ConditionHR (95% CI)P Value
Hypertension1.00 [Reference]
Ischemic heart disease1.27 (0.91-1.78).162
Arrhythmia1.55 (1.06-2.26)a.024a
Diabetes mellitus1.06 (0.63-1.78).839
COPD2.32 (1.55-3.46)a<.001a
Asthma1.33 (1.05-1.70)a<.019a
Arthritis (any)0.98 (0.83-1.16).819
Osteoporosis1.32 (0.87-2.01).185
Cancer (any)1.19 (0.86-1.63).295
Affective mental health condition (any)0.97 (0.71-1.31).831
Otherb1.21 (0.64-2.30).552
  • COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HR = hazard ratio.

  • Note: From a sample of participants having 1 condition in 2002-2003 (n = 1,534), and an outcome of 1 or more incident conditions. Complementary log-log models are discrete time equivalent of Cox proportional hazards models for continuous time. This model adjusted for all baseline patient characteristics, and differential nonresponse using longitudinal sample weighting. HR >1.00 represents increased risk; an HR of <1.00 indicates reduced risk.

  • a Conditions significantly more more likely than hypertension to be associated with incident multimorbidity.

  • b Includes participants with conditions with low prevalence; congestive heart failure, stroke, psychotic mental health condition, and dementia/Alzheimer’s (Table 2). Combined, these individuals in the “other” category accounted for <1% of the sample.