Table 2

Association of Practice Ownership With Work Environment, Learning Culture, Psychological Safety, and Burnout, All Survey Respondents

CharacteristicCulture of Learninga
β (95% CI)
Enjoyment With Worka
β (95% CI)
Place of Joy and Hopea
β (95% CI)
Psychological Safetya
β (95% CI)
β (95% CI)
Practice ownership
 Hospital0.062 (−0.141 to 0.265)0.273 (0.014 to 0.533)b0.194 (−0.057 to 0.446)0.363 (0.118 to 0.609)c−0.287 (−0.509 to −0.063)b
FQHC−0.106 (−0.385 to 0.172)−0.171 (−0.505 to 0.162)−0.191 (−0.536 to 0.155)−0.264 (−0.549 to 0.021)−0.048 (−0.364 to 0.268)
Incremental difference between hospital-owned and independent practices by response category
Response categoryaDifferenceDifferenceDifferenceDifferenceDifference
Level 1−0.011−0.017−0.011−0.0270.098
Level 2−0.012−0.041−0.028−0.054−0.010
Level 3−0.001−0.042−0.037−0.055−0.045
Level 40.0140.0390.0330.052−0.023
Level 50.0090.0610.0430.085−0.020
Total number1,9891,9881,9881,9921,984
  • FQHC = federally qualified health center.

  • Note: Multivariate ordered probit models adjusted for practice-level nonresponse and clustering at practice level and controlling for ownership (independent, hospital system, or federally qualified health center), whether practice is located in a medical underserved area, practice size, single- or multispecialty practice, percentage of patients with Medicare coverage, and percentage of patients with Medicaid coverage or uninsured.

  • a Scored on a scale from 1 to 5, where higher scores indicate higher levels; see text for response categories.

  • b P <.05.

  • c P <.01.