Table 3b

Association of Practice Ownership With Work Environment, Learning Culture, Psychological Safety and Burnout, Staff Respondents

CharacteristicCulture of Learninga
β (95% CI)
Enjoyment With Worka
β (95% CI)
Place of Joy and Hopea
β (95% CI)
Psychological Safetya

β (95% CI)
β (95% CI)
 Hospital-owned0.111 (−0.157 to 0.378)0.282 (−0.007 to 0.571)0.275 (−0.012 to 0.562)0.372 (0.131 to 0.613)b−0.328 (−0.608 to −0.049)c
FQHC−0.018 (−0.367 to 0.331)−0.063 (−0.446 to 0.321)−0.085 (−0.443 to 0.274)−0.157 (−0.456 to 0.141)−0.066 (−0.411 to 0.280)
Incremental difference between hospital-owned and independent practices by response category
Response categoryaDifferenceDifferenceDifferenceDifferenceDifference
Level 1−0.020−0.020−0.017−0.0300.116
Level 2−0.044−0.044−0.040−0.056−0.018
Level 3−0.041−0.041−0.049−0.057−0.051
Level 40.0440.0440.0450.060−0.026
Level 50.0610.0610.0620.082−0.021
No. of respondents1,5031,5031,5031,5061,472
  • FQHC = federally qualified health center.

  • Note: Multivariate ordered probit models adjusted for practice-level nonresponse and clustering at the practice level and controlling for ownership (independent, hospital system, or federally qualified health center), whether practice is located in a medical underserved area, practice size, single or multispecialty practice, percentage of patients with Medicare coverage, and percentage of patients with Medicaid coverage or uninsured.

  • a Scored on a scale from 1 to 5, in which higher scores indicate higher levels; see text for response categories.

  • b P <.01.

  • c P <.05.