Table 1

Types of Employment Interventions Within Health Care Settings

Type of InterventionFeatures
Supported EmploymentNine values for programs for people with developmental disabilities: (1) employment in integrated settings, (2) decent pay, (3) vocational choices, (4) competitive employment, (5) vocational training to reflect local labor needs, (6) parent involvement in planning, (7) parent education relative to Social Security laws, (8) community-based vocational training, and (9) systematically planned transition.17
Individual Placement and SupportA Supported Employment approach developed by Becker and Drake in 1994.18,19
Key principles include (1) approach focuses on competitive employment (ie, positions available to those without severe mental illness), (2) any individual who wishes to work in a competitive job is eligible, (3) a rapid job search approach is used so that individuals can start working as quickly as possible, (4) employment specialists or team is closely integrated with the mental health team, (5) individual preferences are respected and considered, and (6) ongoing and individualized support is provided as long as necessary.12
Integrated Medical and Vocational ProgramA program that reportedly integrates vocational programs with medical services; however, it does not follow a specific program such as Individual Placement and Support.
Clubhouse ModelClubhouses use work-ordered days, which involves participation in activities to develop participants’ motivation to get involved in transitional employment.19,20 A primary component of the clubhouse model is transitional employment, which consists of the following19(p:42)
 • Realistic job experience (entry-level employment)
 • A staff worker first performs tasks with new placements
 • Part-time employment (15 to 20 hours/week)
 • Temporary (6 to 9 months)
 • Staff members guarantee a replacement if participant is absent
 • Tolerates job failures
 • Job coaching at work site
 • Employees encouraged to work at clubhouse when not at work
OtherIn a number of studies, the intervention could not be classified as any of the interventions above. This group was heterogeneous. For example, one article considered having only an employment specialist to be an intervention.20