Table 1

Clinician Characteristics, Exposure to Transgender Individuals, Barriers and Facilitators Related to Caring for Transgender Patients, and Willingness to Provide Care (N = 140)

Clinician characteristicsn (%)
Age (mean, SD)39.7 (13.4)
 Male58 (41.4)
 Female82 (58.6)
Continent of origin
 North America/Caribbean91 (65.5)
 Other48 (34.5)
Political views
 Liberal66 (47.1)
 Moderate51 (36.4)
 Conservative23 (16.4)
 Internal medicine97 (69.3)
 Family medicine43 (30.7)
Clinician type
 Resident73 (52.1)
 Advanced practitioner3 (2.1)
 Attending physician64 (45.7)
Ever met a transgender person
 Yes106 (75.7)
 No34 (24.3)
Treated transgender patient in past 5 years
 Yes75 (53.6)
 No65 (46.4)
Empathy (mean, SD)a5.4 (1.5)
Transphobia (mean, SD)a3.2 (1.1)
Barriers and Facilitators
Lack of training on transgender healthb
 Yes67 (47.9)
 No73 (52.1)
Lack of exposure to transgender patients
 Yes52 (37.1)
 No88 (62.9)
Lack of knowledge about transgender care among staffb
 Yes45 (32.1)
 No95 (67.9)
Lack of familiarity with transition care guidelinesb
 Yes73 (52.1)
 No67 (47.9)
Capable of providing routine care to transgender patientsb
 Yes96 (68.6)
 No44 (31.4)
Willingness to provide care
Willing to provide routine care for transgender patientsb120 (85.7)
Willing to provide Pap tests for transgender menb104 (78.6)
  • Pap = Papanicoulou.

  • a Theoretical range 1–7. Higher score represents greater empathy or transphobia.

  • b Originally measured on a 7-point scale. Dichotomized for analysis (1-4=no, 5-7=yes).