Table 2

Factors Associated With Primary Care Clinicians’ Willingness to Provide Routine Care for Transgender Patients and Pap Tests for Transgender Men (N = 140)

Routine Care for Transgender PatientsPap Test for Transgender Men
No. (%)P ValueNo. (%)P Value
Clinician characteristics
Age (mean, SD).042.246
 Willing38.7 (13.2)39.0 (13.4)
 Not willing45.3 (13.5)42.2 (13.3)
Continent of origin.002.044
 North America/Caribbean92.383.5
Political views.379.101
 Internal medicine85.673.2
 Family medicine86.090.7
Clinician type.156.165
 Advanced practitioner100.0100.0
 Attending MD79.771.9
Ever met a transgender person.020<.001
Transgender patient in past 5 years.022.012
Barriers & facilitators
Empathy (mean, SD).035.083
Willing5.5 (1.4)5.5 (1.3)
Not willing4.8 (1.6)4.9 (1.8)
Transphobia (mean, SD).007<.001
Willing3.1 (1.0)3.0 (1.0)
Not willing3.8 (1.3)3.8 (1.1)
Lack of training on transgender health.240.006
Lack of exposure to transgender patients.022.013
Lack of knowledge about transgender.018.018
care among staff
Lack of familiarity with guidelines.782.027
Capable of providing routine care<.001.043
  • Pap = Papanicoulou.